Design Criteria for Minimizing the Impact of Intercity Roads on Land and the Environment

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Article/Study Title: Design Criteria for Minimizing the Impact of Intercity Roads on Land and the Environment

Authors: Staff Leader – Ran Zilberstein – Amy Metom Engineers & Consultants, Ltd.;Traffic & highway engineering: – Amy Metom Engineers & Consultants, Ltd.;Eng. Ruth Ben Zino Eng. Dotan Riegler;Eng. Lirit Rozenfeld ;Scientific consulting and editing: Dr. Benny Frisher;Foreign design consultant – bridges and interchanges: Obermeyer Planen + Beraten GMBH ;;Environmental Quality: Top Acoustics: Dr. Osnat Arno;;Ms. Shira Buchwald;Ms. Shiri Fundaminsky;Mr. Eli Glicksman;Dr. Ron Frumkin;Landscape architect: Greenstein Har-Gil ;Dr. Gil Har Gil;Landscape Architect Tali Mark;Transportation economics: Mr. Ehud Hasson;Architecture and city planning: Zafrir-Farchi Architects, Ltd;Architect Dotan Zafrir;Architect Oded Kutok

Client: Ministry of Transportation and Roads Safety

Abstract: Israel is a small and densely populated country – its population density is high relative to most countries of the world. In contrast with many countries of the Western world, its density is expected to even increase since its population has been growing at a higher rate than is customarily experienced in the West. This growth in population mandates intensive development. In Israel, some residential uses are provided through single-family home construction, which is particularly wasteful of the country's limited land resources. This decentralized form of development requires extension of intercity road infrastructure, taking up large tracts of land and creating buffers between open areas. It is clear that the country cannot continue to provide a compatible supply of roadway and parking infrastructure that will respond to the forecast demand for private vehicle use. In addition to land, which is a precious commodity in the country, there are many other resources that need to be preserved. The trend toward preservation of resources and environmental quality has gained traction throughout the world over the past decades – the countries of the world outlined sustainable development policies (Agenda 21) during the Earth Summit held in 1992 in Rio de Janeiro. It was decided at the conference that: "The nations of the world must adopt national strategies for sustainable development supported by and adapted to the variety of economic, social and environmental sectors of their countries." Based on this conference, the Government of Israel adopted Decision No. 246 in 2003 whereby: "The State of Israel will be based on principles of sustainable development management that combine a dynamic economy, intelligent use of natural resources, protection of ecological systems and provision of equal opportunities for everyone… In the spirit of an "implementation program", each government ministry shall prepare a sustainable development strategy that will include, inter alia, a ministerial action plan, means of implementation, sources of financing from the ministry budget, measurable objectives and target dates for achieving them." The concept that provides the basis for these guidelines forms part of the development policy of the Ministry of Transportation in the matter of sustainable planning. In addition to preserving the environment, these guidelines also emphasize reference to preserving land resources.

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